This is in no way official – it just came out one day in conversation and it seems to answer the question: Safety hazards are those things that can hurt you. Health hazards are those things that can make you sick. Some items, situations, environments, etc. can fall into both categories. Both health hazards and safety hazards have the potential to cause death.
OSHA publications mention that safety hazards apply mostly to the physical conditions of the workplace or the way equipment and machinery are used. Examples mentioned include electrical safety, power and hand tools, working and walking surfaces, trip and fall hazards, ladders, scaffolds, and other personal climbing and elevated support devices, lock out and tag out procedures, compressed gases, flammable or combustible materials, other hazardous chemicals and so on.
The list of health hazards goes on and on and just about every environment and occupation has its own list. The most commonly listed are: carbon monoxide, cockroaches, dust mites, lead, mold, pesticides, radon, rodents, asbestos and arsenic-treated wood.
HUD Regulations Attachment 5 mentions that the EPA website (http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/hazard/index.htm) lists additional health hazards. Specific health hazards mentioned in Attachment 5 are: decaying food or other organic matter, dead animals and animal feces, pest infestations, broken glass or other sharp objects, large containers of liquids, large quantities of paint or paint products paints or solvents in any amount stored in or near papers, fabrics or other flammable materials, highly flammable chemicals (e.g., solvents, paint thinners, gasoline, motor oil and motor additives, etc.).
Contractors must know local laws and ordinances which may have their own list of safety hazards and health hazards and the required methods of disposal. Particular attention must be given to all objects, appliances in particular (ovens, refrigerators, food freezers, etc.) that have doors; many municipalities impose criminal charges for improper storage and/or disposal.